An Introduction to the Study of World Religions

The Almighty God “Onyankompon-Twi or Akan)”, a fearful name that is never mentioned, whispered or intimated any where on earth and his/her agents, the Gods on earth, are the basis for all religions. African or otherwise. The Almighty God, in his Encyclica as the Creator (Odomankoma-Twi-Akans of Ghana) of Heavens and Earth and everything in them, is the Head of all the Gods on earth (Onyankompon-the Geat Power- Okokroko-the Great one-Largeness- Twi-Akan in Ghana).

No being; spiritual or human, can defy the Almighty God. Human beings use religion as a means of reaching the Almighty God through the Gods by Africans; Jesus Christ by Christians and Muhammed by the Muslims. Almighty God has no Priest or Priestess in Akan religion. He is too Holy to deal with human beings. All the Gods-the Agents of God, have Priests and or Priestesses through whom the Gods speak to human beings. Human beings make Petitions, prayers for solutions to human problems through the Gods to the Almighty God for solutions to human problems the that Gods cannot solve.

The Gods as spirits can be invoked into their priests with drumming, singing and dancing. It is a thing of beauty to behold the invocation of a God in traditional African society. Whenever I visit a non African religious worships I often wonder whether they are faking in their efforts to invoke the spirit of the Almighty God. In the first place the Africans believe that no human can invoke the spirit of the Almighty God because the Spirit of the Almighty God is too overpowering for a human being. These non African religious worships have priests for the Almighty God and they are presumed to invoke the spirit of the Almighty God in their worships unto a priest. In fact, the settings are similar to those of the African religious invocating settings:

  1. Altar or Shrine
  2. Priests and or priestesses
  3. Elders
  4. Singers
  5. Drummers
  6. Congregation or members of the shrine.

Here we are only talking about the invocation of a speaking God. Non speaking Gods have different process of invocations. In the non African religious settings of invocations; the Christians and Muslims, especially invoke the spirit of the Almighty God which as I have said the Africans dispute because, no being can invoke the spirit of Almighty God. This is one of the most important differences between the traditional African religion and the Middle Eastern religious practices. Judaism, Islam and Christianity.

Millions of songs and different kinds of African drumming, dancing and even languages in Africa, are now extinct because Africans are now Muslims and Christians and Christians and Muslims abhor and detest traditional religions. Also lost forever with these religious practices in Africa are herbal medicines. I need not tell you that those of us who saw tropical Africa rain forest, saw also herbal medicines that the priests and priestesses used to cure all kinds of diseases during pre colonial and colonial periods.

In African traditional religion, one can become a member of as many Shrines or Gods as one can have time to worship. Membership is open to all, natives or foreigners, Christians or Muslims. Becoming a member of a God is easy. Take for example becoming a member of Tegare-a talking God or Dokosu, non talking God, one needs to stand before the Gods and the Elders will narrate to the new comer the “dos and don’ts” of the Gods. Tegare for example has laws similar to the ten commandments. In addition, “sipe” the principle that one should never hide or harbor any thing against her/his family members and that if one hides or harbors any hostile thinking or negative thoughts against a relative, the Gods who sees every thing in human’s mind will make you sick until you confess the reasons why such a negative thoughts are within you against a relative. If you become sick, for harboring such negative thoughts and refuse to confess to the person or relative you are against, death can result. It is therefore important that all those who become members of Tegare or Dokosu get to know this rule and confront any relative who sins against you and resolve any differences between the two of you.

Christians, Muslims and Judaism preach exclusivity in their practice of religion, i.e. one can only belong to one of the three religions. Even in each denomination of the Christians or Muslims, the practice is that a Catholic cannot be a member of Methodist or any of the 960 Christian denominations or hundreds of the Muslim sects. Why so, it not clear to me because if we all seeking one God, why can’t we get together or combine the sects. These non African religious institutionsTdo not believe that a human being made in the image of God, the Almighty, can practice all the three religions. What a shame. If all religions are for the greater glory of God, why can’t we combine them. Someone is not being honest here. It is a surprise to learn that God means Onyankompon in Twi an African language, Ala in Arabic, what stops us from combining all the religions in the world to glorify our Father in Heave. This is a bit far off because all the three religions; Judaism, Christianity and Islam are from Abraham; the father of the three religions.

These religions profess to preach God. Why can’t all get together and worship God, Ala or Yahwe. Tens and hundreds of languages are being destroyed because the owners of Islam, Christianity an etc believe that one must use the native language of the place where the religion originated to pray in order to reach their God. In Islam, Arabic is the language and not only do you have to use their language, one must also dress Arabic, eat Arabic foods. Muslims expect every member to visit Mecca at least once in a life time to see the KABA- a stone that Jacob slept on, at least ones in life time This is the greatest tourist concept attributable to the works to be done for God which leaves one helpless and useless if one is poor.

When I was a member of Methodist Church we wee asked to pray in English. So it was when I became a Presbyterian. Both the Methodist and the Presbyterians were the first to break down the barriers of languages in praying. The songs of the two denominations quickly were Africanized. The Catholics were the last to see the light. I was baptized, confirmed and matrimonized in the Catholic Church, we were compelled to pray in Latin language, then later on as independence began, it was changed to English and now the Catholic pray, drum and dance in native African languages.

Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature and purpose of the universe, especially, when considered as the creation of superhuman agency, or agencies, (God)(s), usually involving devotional and ritual observances and often having a moral code for the conduct of human affairs; a specific and institutional set of beliefs and practices, generally agreed upon by a number of persons or sects: the African religion, the Muslin, religion, Christian religion and the Buddhist religion.

From the earliest known evidence of human religion by Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis around 100,000 years ago to the present day, i.e. the year 1776, when the concept of separation of religion from the state or society was formally inaugurated by the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, religion continues to be a very influential aspect of human lives and governance. Americans were the first to break away from religious dominance in human lives with the introduction of the United States Constitution in 1776. Until then, human beings, especially those in the Western and Islamic world, Societies or Civilization, had been under the spell of religion.

Today, there are numerous challenges and problems faced by humans from every possible background, location and social class. Every day people must face issues of health, safety and mortality. It is because of these daily challenges that religion continues to exist. Religion is the universal tool for explaining things which we do not understand through the context of the known physical world. Why then did the Christian Missionaries and Muslims took upon themselves to denounce other religions in Asia, Africa and North and South America as barbarous, satanic and of no value when they have no knowledge of these indigenous religions.

Although there are countless religions, each different from the other, they all serve the same purpose. Each answers questions which all humans seem to be programmed to ask: Why are we here? What happens when I die? How shall I live my life? African religion do more than these basic questions. We have African religion because the religion is designed to solve spiritual problems which are better stated “Put on the whole amour of God , that we may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in the high places”. Since the Gods are spirits, they solve the spiritual problems for humans. In the night when the evil spirits reign supreme, it is these Gods that protect humanity. The African Gods are saints in the world. They only do good to humans and they dwell in tents. All they need is a small place for them to stay and obedience to their laws and a human being will be protected from the wiles of the devil.

Religion helps us to transmit our values from one generation to another, and influences the way we interact with the natural environment. It teaches us how to see ourselves in light of the universe and gives purpose and meaning to life. Religion protects mundane life from wicked spirits, wicked people and make life more meaningful. Religion solves spiritual problems of human beings.

Whether you are a member of a particular religious group, unsure of what you should believe, or do not have any religious beliefs, these web pages will introduce you to the world's six major religions. They are not meant to convert, or to be the synopsis of every aspect of the religion they explain. They are intended to serve as an introduction, to whet your appetite for further study and to help you understand those around you better. Since the African personality was attacked by Europeans, African religion which protects the spiritual part of the African has been walked upon and scorned by those who do not believe in spirits and with inferior religion as compared to the African religion.

With our global society, it is likely that in your lifetime you will meet people from every corner of the planet. Understanding the religious beliefs of these peoples is one of the many steps which mankind must take in order to someday prosper together in peace. Written by Sara Wenner, 2001 and modified by Dr. Kofi Agyapong, SADA.

Basic Beliefs of Animism



In anthropology, animism can be considered to be the original human religion, being defined simply as belief in the existence of spiritual beings or Gods “in the Universe”. Jesus, the Christ once said “God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth”. So you can say with certainty that only the followers of Animism worship God in spirit because they believe in spirits and have ways of invoking spirits.

Animism dates back to the earliest humans and continues to exist today, making it the oldest form of religious belief on Earth. When Dr. Kofi Agyapong of Ghana, West Africa was born at Afrantwo, Adum, Kumase, Asante, the only religion in his town, and for that matter in Ghan, and Africa was Abosom, the Stone Worshippers, including the Koran Kabba in Saudi Arabia. “Asante Nkramo” or the native Muslims were there also. These Muslims are descendants of those Muslins who conquered Africa and imposed Islam on my people during the time of the Muslin conquest of Africa. Most African Muslins do not know that they are conquered slaves of the Arabs. It is a sad news that most Africans have abandoned their past. People, like Africans who do not know their history are bound to repeat the mistakes in their history. These Africa Arabs, pray in Arabic to Arabic God, eat Arab foods, dress Arab clothing, spend millions of dollars of Africa’s meager foreign earnings, year in and year out as tourists in Saudi Arabia in the name of RELIGION while the Arabs and Europeans look at African Religion as black, evil and satanic.

Animism is characteristic of aboriginal and native cultures, yet it can be practiced by anyone who believes in spirituality but does not proscribe to any specific organized religion, because all the organized religions, especially the Abraham derivative religions; Judaism, Christianity and Islam, do not believe in spirits and are organized to oppose the traditional religious believes of Africans-the Black man and the Black woman; the Red Indians- the Red man and the Red woman and Yellow man and the Yellow woman.

The basis for animism is acknowledgment that there is a spiritual realm which humans share the universe with. The Judaism, Christianity and Islam do not believe in spiritualism of the universe. These Spirits or Gods can be harness or made to dwell by men and women with special training in spiritualism; in trees, lakes, forests, hills, animals, reptiles, and carvings of male or female human beings and other creatures. The concepts that humans possess souls and that souls have life apart from human bodies before and after death are central to animism, along with the ideas that animals, plants, and celestial bodies have spirits.

In Africa, before the White man came, every city, town or village had Gods. If you are an African, ask your parents or relative for the name of the God of your town. These Gods protected the people and the environment of the village, town or city. These Gods or spirits wad off evil spirits, diseases and even death. They can also prolong life. My Grandfather Nana Akwasi Adowia lived 125 years and my own mother Yaa Konama live 115 years both lives were managed by the Gods: Tegare, Dokosu, Kyinaman and others. I had to ask my sister Akua Nno and the mother of my daugter Adowoa Konama Agyapong’s mother; Esther Serwaa Sunkwa to give drinks to the Gods to permit my mother to depart to Asamando.

The Gods or spirits when invoked into their priests can prescribe ritual methods to stop even death from taking a sick person to the land of the death or “Asamando”. The Gods can predict natural disasters such as hurricanes. Even now, these Gods still do exist in many of the traditional cities, towns and villages. The God of Jerusalem was called Yahwe. The God of Afrantwo, my town, in Asante, West Africa is called Ntinanko. All the Kings and Chiefs in Ghana in particular and Africa in general have Gods in their homes. Each King or Chief also has a Black Stool representing his instoolment on the throne.

The Great King of Asante – Asantehene-He who sits on the Golden Stool has a Minister or Secretary for Gods in Asante, commonly known as Nsumankwaahene-King of the Gods. One of the greatest priests the world has ever known, Okomfo Anokye, who conjured the Golden Stool of the Asantes from the Heavens, he spat and it became a river, he threw a sword into the ground and is still there at Okomfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumase, Asante, he climbed a tree with his sandals on his feet and his steps are still on the tree.

These wonders are still there as a testimony of his great feat which no human being since the creation of the Earth has ever done. Even our great religious men such as Jesus, the Christ, Muhammad and others have no evidence to show of their deeds. Okomfo Anokye was the greatest of all the prophets that God has ever sent on earth to redeem mankind; for his deeds still evidence his divine powers. Africa has some spiritual things for the world when the time comes. Africa’s time has not yet arrived. Africa is still under the spell of the European and Arab slavery mentalities.

Who created the Gods: It is the Almighty God, the “Odomankoma, Chike, Olorin, Ala or the Creator of Heavens and Earth and everything therein who created man and woman also created the Gods.

There are two types of Gods or spirits: Good spirit and Bad spirits.

The good Gods or spirits do good at all times and the bad Gods or bad spirits do bad at all times

Where do the Gods live: The Gods and other spirits live on earth just as humans live on earth but you cannot see the Gods because they are spirits.

Question: Why can’t we not see the Gods?:

Answer: Naked human eyes cannot see the Gods or spirits.

Process: The African and other traditional religions have a process by which a human being can see spirits, including deceased relatives, ghosts and dead people.

But what do these Gods do?. Since good men and good women; bad men and bad women shares this world with spirits; good and bad spirits, but women and men do not know what is happening in the spiritual world because human beings do not see the spiritual world, it is almost crucial that human beings get the Gods to look after the affairs of man and woman in the spiritual world.

Question: How do the Gods protect human beings:

Answer: In my house at Afrantwo, we belong to the following Gods:

  1. Tegare
  2. Dokosu
  3. Kyinaman
  4. Ntinako
  5. Kankamea.
  6. Kwaku Ofiri.
  7. Nnanwuro
  8. Pasa
  9. Sudwanta
  10. Adade
  11. Oboo

Of the seleven Gods protecting my family, Tegare is own by my father, Kofi Abora, who went to Northern Ghana to procure Tegare to come and protect his family from the wiles of the devil, and currently since the death of my father, my mother took over Tegare, because my father’s grandson who was the rightful inheritor to the Gods, refused to take Tegare because he is a Christian. The story I am about to tell you is an eye witness story.

My father was a very rich man in gold, diamonds and the British pounds. He had several cocoa farms and owned gold dust and gold nuggets, diamonds and millions of US dollar, and British Pound not counting local money. He used to lend money to almost anybody who came to borrow money. He had money lending license. He also gave money freely to anyone who came to him to ask ask for money. He had a policy “yen nnyinaa dea” “all belong to us”. What he had belonged to all. He was a kind man whose private car was used to take women who could not deliver babies locally to Okomfo Anokye Hospital while public transports refuse to take such women on account that blood from child birth would stain the public vehicles.

My father had only one nephew. According to the laws of Asante, being matrilineage, only nephews on the maternal lineage can inherit uncles. Women are a force to recon with in Asante externed family structures. In fact in some cases the decision of the oldest woman in a family is binding on all the family members. My Father’s nephew was called Kwaku Amoah. He lived with my father. For some reasons only known to Kwaku Amoah, he decided to kill my father and inherit my father’s fortune. Kwaku Amoah therefore went to a bad god to give him the spiritual powers to kill my father.

Kwaku Amoah, a follower or a member of Tegare shrine knew all the laws of Tegare including “sipe” one of Tegare laws which forbids family members from keeping secrets in their minds against fellow family member; the violation of this law can be severe punishment; including sickness and sometimes death unless the perpetrator confess his/her before the God his reasons for harboring secret and harmful thoughts against relatives. Kwaku Amoa brought the bad god to our house. The god was in a small pot with human finger, herbs and other concoctions in a pot. Kwaku Amoah hid the pot underneath his bed and waited for the bad spirit to kill my father knowing well that Tegare was there to protect my father.

One day Kwaku Amoah went to fetch palm fruit. He climbed the palm tree and started to cut the fruit when he heard some voluminous voice underneath the palm tree. Kwaku Amoah looked down and saw a six month old baby clawing under the palm tree. Kwaku Amoah asked:

Kwaku Amoah: Where is your mother?

Tegare in the form of a baby: My mother?

Kwaku Amoa: Yes, where is your mother?

Tegare: I have no mother!1

Kwaku Amoah: How, a baby boy talks like a 100 year old man.

Tegare: But why do you want to kill your uncle who is good to you.

Kwaku Amoah: How do you know I want to kill my uncle, false.

Tegare: So you are arguing with me.

Kwaku Amoah: Yes, it is not true.

As soon as he said it was not true, Kwaku Amoah fell from the palm tree and the thorns on the palm branches pricked him. Kwaku Amoah came home and kept the story to himself. Few weeks later infection set in the wound from the pricking of the palm branches and Kwaku Amoa was dying. My father took Kwaku Amoah to Tegare shrine to offer a peace sacrifice to Tegare. Tegare refused the peace sacrifice. This is a sign that there was something wrong in my father’s family.

The next step is to go to a talking God to ask why Tegare refused the peace sacrifice. My father took Kwaku Amoah to Pasa, a talking God who advised Kwaku Amoah to tell the truth to live or die by keeping his mouth shut. The talking God told my father that it is Tegare and Dokosu that Kwaku Amoah had offended and Kwaku Amoah should tell the truth or risk being killed by the two Gods.

Few days later, Kwaku Amoah volunteered to tell the truth before the talking God. The talking God, Pasa, advised my father to take Kwaku Amoah to Dokosu, a non talking God who had caused Kwaku Amoah’s sickness. Kwaku Amoah was taken to Dokosu’s shrine and he was asked to tell why he was before the God. Kwaku Amoah for the first time said that he had gone to a satanic god to get some medicine to kill my father for his money.

As soon as he confessed, the Priest of the talking God, Papa Kwaku Kyere told my father to take his nephew away because the punishment for what Kwaku Amoah had done was death. As soon as they lifted Kwaku Amoah from the stool he was sitting on, he died. Kwaku Amoah was taken home and buried in the cemetery face down.

From the above family incident, you have just a glimpse of what the Gods are doing to protect the living human beings who subscribe to the rules, regulations and laws of the non talking Gods and talking Gods.

The Good Gods are used to protect the good people of this world. The Good Gods or the Saints are there to protect those who go to them for protection on spiritual and mundane or worldly problems.

Animistic gods often are immortalized by mythology explaining the creation of fire, wind, water, man, animals, and other natural earthly things. Although specific beliefs of animism vary widely, similarities between the characteristics of Gods and Goddesses and rituals practiced by animistic societies exist. The presence of holy men or women, visions, trancing, dancing, sacred items, and sacred spaces for worship, and the connection felt to the spirits of ancestors are characteristic of animistic societies.


Shelley, Fred M. and Audrey E. Clarke, eds. Human and Cultural Geography. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1994.

Lehmann, Arthur C. and James E. Myers, eds. Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1993.

Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

Basic Beliefs of Judaism

Moses Judaism is a monotheistic religion which believes that the world was created by a single, all-knowing divinity, and that all things within that world were designed to have meaning and purpose as part of a divine order. According to the teachings of Judaism, God's will for human behavior was revealed to Moses and the Israelites at Mount Saini. The Torah, or commandments, which regulate how humans are to live their lives, were a gift from God so that they might live in according to His will.


Statement of Faith

Moses Maimonides, a Spanish Jew who lived in the 12th century, tried to condense the basic beliefs of Judaism into the form of a creed. It is still followed by the traditional forms of Judaism.

1. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things.

2. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like unto His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.

3. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is not a body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that He has not any form whatever.

4. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the first and the last.

5. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.

6. I believe with perfect faith that all the works of the prophets are true.

7. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses, our teacher, peace be unto him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both of those who preceded and of those who followed him.

8. I believe with perfect faith that the whole Torah, now in our possession, is the same that was given to Moses, our teacher, peace be unto him.

9. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be changed, and that there will never be any other Law from the Creator, blessed be His name.

10. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His name, knows very deed of the children of men, and all their thoughts, as it is said. It is He that fashioned the hearts of them all, that gives heed to all their works.

11. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, rewards those that keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.

12. I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and, though he tarry, I will wait daily for his coming.

13. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, blessed be His name, and exalted be His Fame for ever and ever.

For Thy salvation I hope, O Lord.

Three Branches of Judaism

These are the three branches of Judaism which form the framework for the type of lifestyle and beliefs of Jewish individuals:


Traditionalists who observe most of the traditional dietary and ceremonial laws of Judaism


Do not hold to the importance of a Jewish political state, but put more emphasis on the historic and religious aspects of Judaism, doctrinally somewhere between Orthodox and Reform


The liberal wing of Judaism, culture and race oriented with little consensus on doctrinal or religious belief



McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, Handbook of Today's Religions. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983. Twelfth printing, June 1992.

Shelley, Fred M. and Audrey E. Clarke, eds. Human and Cultural Geography. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1994.


'Moses' and 'Menorah' courtesy of World Religions in Images
Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

Basic Beliefs of Christianity

Mary and Child The central figure in Christianity is Jesus (or Christ), a Jew who came into this world by immaculate conception to a virgin named Mary. His birth is celebrated at Christmas with hymns and gift giving. This man was not only man, but also the son of God and lived his life without sin.


Christus During his lifetime, Jesus performed many miracles and spoke to many people about his father in heaven. He was arrested for claiming to be God's son and was hung on the cross by the Romans at age 33. Christians believe that the suffering and death upon the cross which this sinless man endured paid for the sins of all mankind, and because of Jesus' actions, salvation can be achieved by anyone who believes in him. This act of sacrifice is remembered during Lent.


Christ taken off cross

'Christ taken off cross' © MIT Orthodox Christian Fellowship

Following his death, Christians believe that he rose from the grave (celebrated at Easter) and returned to the earth, appearing to his followers and telling them of the kingdom of God to which he was going. He also promised his disciples that he would return one day to bring all believers with him to that kingdom, to enjoy eternal life in the presence of God.

Baptism of Jesus Christians can read of the life of Jesus, as well as his ancestors in the only Christian holy text, the Bible. It consists of the Old Testament (which is also considered sacred to Judaism and Islam) and the New Testament. The Old Testament chronicles the lives of Jews and others who lived before Jesus, who had been promised a savior by God, and were waiting for him. This text contains many stories about people demonstrating faith in God and also provides historical information about the era. The New Testament is unique to Christianity, for it centers around the figure of Jesus and his effect on the world. Christians believe that Jesus is the one that the Old Testament foretold, so instead of looking for a savior, they await the return of Jesus so that he can take them to his kingdom, or heaven.
The beliefs of Christianity can be seen in the words of the Apostles' Creed, a document which was written to distinguish Christianity from other religions and show basic Christian doctrine in a concise manner.


The Apostle's Creed

I believe in God the Father Almighty,
Maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ,
His only Son, our Lord;
Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit,
Born of the Virgin Mary,
Suffered under Pontius Pilate,
Was crucified, died and was buried.
He descended into hell;
The third day He rose again from the dead;
He ascended into heaven
and is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty;
From there He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit,
The holy Christian Church,
The Communion of Saints,
the Forgiveness of sins,
The Resurrection of the body,
And the Life everlasting.


The Holy Bible.

Evangelical Lutheran Synod, Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary, St. Louis, Mo: MorningStar Music Publishers 1996.


'Christus' courtesy of Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi

'Mary and Child' and 'Baptism of Jesus' courtesy of World Religions In Images

'Christ taken off cross' courtesy of Online Icons by MIT Orthodox Christian Fellowship

Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

Basic Beliefs of Islam

The teachings of Islam are comprised of both faith and duty (din). One branch of Muslim learning, "Tawhid", defines all that a man should believe, while the other branch, "Shari'a," prescribes everything that he should do. There is no priesthood and no sacraments. Except among the Sufis, Muslims receive instruction only from those who consider themselves adequately learned in theology or law.

muhammad The basis for Islamic doctrine is found in the Qur'an (Koran). It is the scripture of Islam, written by Muhammad and his disciples as dictated by the Angel Gabriel. It alone is infallible and without error. The Qur'an is comprised of 114 surahs, or chapters, arranged from longest to shortest. For Muslims, the Qur'an is the word of God, and he carrier of the revelation of Muhammad, the last and most perfect of God's messengers to mankind.
islam1 In addition to the Qur'an, other documents are also referred to by followers of Islam. A number of additional sayings of Muhammad were complied in the Hadith ("tradition"). The Torat (of Moses), Suhuf (books of the prophets), Zabur (psalms of David), and the Injil (gospel of Jesus) are also studied and considered to be revelations, although they are believed to have been corrupted through time.


Five Articles of Faith

The five articles of faith are the main doctrines of Islam. All Muslims are expected to believe the following:

  1. God. There is one true God and his name is Allah.
  2. Angels. Angels exist and interact with human lives. They are comprised of light, and each have different purposes or messages to bring to earth. Each man or woman has two angels who record his actions; one records good deeds, the other bad deeds.
  3. Scripture. There are four inspired books, the Torah of Moses, the Psalms (Zabin) of David, the Gospel of Jesus Christ (Injil) and the Qur'an. All but the Qur'an have been corrupted by Jews and Christians.
  4. Prophets. God has spoken through numerous prophets throughout time. The six greatest are: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. Muhammad is the last and greatest of Allah's messengers.
  5. Last Days. On the last day there will be a time of resurrection and judgment. Those who follow Allah and Muhammad will go to Islamic heaven, or Paradise. Those who do not will go to hell.

The Five Pillars of Faith

The five pillars of faith are observances in Islam which are duties each Muslim must perform.

  1. Creed (Kalima)- One must state, "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah." publicly to become a Muslim.
  2. Prayer (Salat)- Prayer must be done five times a day (upon rising, at noon, in mid-afternoon, after sunset, and before going to sleep) towards the direction of Mecca. The call to prayer is sounded by the muezzin (Muslim crier) from a tower (minaret) within the mosque.
  3. Almsgiving (Zakat)- Muslims are legally required to give one-fortieth of their income to the needy. Since those whom alms are given are helping the giver achieve salvation, there is no sense of shame in receiving charity.
  4. Fasting (Ramadan)- During the holy month of Ramadan, faithful Muslims fast from sunup to sundown each day. This develops self-control, devotion to God, and identity with the needy.
  5. Pilgrimage (Hajj)- Each Muslim is expected to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they have the means to do it and are physically capable of the trip. It is an essential part of gaining salvation, so the old or infirm may send someone in their place. It involves a set of rituals and ceremonies.

A sixth religious duty associated with the five pillars is Jihad, or Holy War. This duty requires that if the situation warrants, men are required to go to war to defend or spread Islam. If they are killed, they are guaranteed eternal life in Paradise.


McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, Handbook of Today's Religions. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983. Twelfth printing, June 1992.

Shelley, Fred M. and Audrey E. Clarke, eds. Human and Cultural Geography. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1994.


'Islam1' courtesy of Yogic insights into Islam by Knowledge of Reality Magazine

'Muhammad' courtesy of World Religions in Images

Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

Basic Beliefs of Buddhism

The basic beliefs of Buddhism can be demonstrated in the following concepts and doctrines:

The Four Noble Truths

The First Noble Truth is the existence of suffering. Birth is painful and death is painful; disease and old age are painful. Not having what we desire is painful and having what we do not desire is also painful.

The Second Noble Truth is the cause of suffering. It is the craving desire for the pleasures of the senses, which seeks satisfaction now here, now there; the craving for happiness and prosperity in this life and in future lives.

The Third Noble Truth is the ending of suffering. To be free of suffering one must give up, get rid of, extinguish this very craving, so that no passion and no desire remain.

The Fourth Noble Truth leads to the ending of all pain by way of the Eightfold Path.

The Eightfold Path

The first step on that path is Right Views: You must accept the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

The second is Right Resolve: You must renounce the pleasures of the senses; you must harbor no ill will toward anyone and harm no living creature.

The third is Right Speech: Do not lie; do not slander or abuse anyone. Do not indulge in idle talk.

The fourth is Right Behavior: Do not destroy any living creature; take only what is given to you; do not commit any unlawful sexual act.

The fifth is Right Occupation: You must earn your livelihood in a way that will harm no one.

The sixth is Right Effort: You must resolve and strive heroically to prevent any evil qualities from arising in you and to abandon any evil qualities that you may possess. Strive to acquire good qualities and encourage those you do possess to grow, increase, and be perfected.

The seventh is Right Contemplation: Be observant, strenuous, alert, contemplative, and free of desire and of sorrow.

The eighth is Right Meditation: When you have abandoned all sensuous pleasures, all evil qualities, both joy and sorrow, you must then enter the four degrees of meditation, which are produced by concentration.

Buddhist Precepts

There are five precepts taught by Buddhism that all Buddhists should follow:

  1. Kill no living thing.
  2. Do not steal.
  3. Do not commit adultery.
  4. Tell no lies.
  5. Do not drink intoxicants or take drugs.

Other precepts apply only to monks and nuns:

  1. Eat moderately and only at the appointed time.
  2. Avoid that which excites the senses.
  3. Do not wear adornments.
  4. Do not sleep in luxurious beds.
  5. Accept no silver or gold.

Sacred Scriptures

wheel of Samsara In Theravada (Southeast Asian) Buddhism, there are three groups of writings considered to be holy scripture, known as the "Three Baskets" (Tripitaka). The Vinaya Pitaka (discipline basket) contains rules for the higher class of Buddhists; the Sutta Pitaka (teaching basket) contains the discourses of Buddha; and the Abidhamma Pitaka (metaphysical basket) contains Buddhist theology.

Mahayana (Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, etc.) Buddhism contains an incredibly large amount of holy writings, over five thousand volumes. The oldest scriptures are based on Sanskrit, while others have been written in Nepalese, Tibetan, and Chinese. There are no clear limits as to what should be admitted as scripture, so thousands of writings on the topic have been admitted.


McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, Handbook of Today's Religions. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983. Twelfth printing, June 1992.

Shelley, Fred M. and Audrey E. Clarke, eds. Human and Cultural Geography. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1994.


'Wheel of Samsara' courtesy of World Religions in Images

Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

Basic Beliefs of Hinduism

Ganesh Hinduism is based on the concept that human and animal spiritsreincarnate, or come back to earth to live many times in different forms. The belief that souls move up and down an infinite hierarchy depending on the behaviors they practiced in their life is visible in many of the Hindu societal policies. The caste system survives and charity towards others is unheard of because each individual deserves to be in the social class they were born in. A person is born into the highest class because they behaved well in a past life, and a person is born into poverty and shame because of misbehaviors in a past life.
krishna Today, a Hindu can be polytheistic (more than one god), monotheistic (one god), pantheistic (god and the universe are one), agnostic (unsure if god exists), or atheistic (no god) and still claim to be Hindu. This open theology makes it difficult to discuss basic beliefs since there are many ideas about what Hinduism means. However, these universal ideas must be mentioned.

Central to Hinduism are the concepts of reincarnation, the caste system, merging with brahman (or the ultimate reality), finding morality, and reaching Nirvana (the peaceful escape from the cycle of reincarnation).

Religious documents include Sruti, (what is heard) and Smriti, (what is remembered). The Sruti include deeply religious things communicated to a seer and recorded. The Vedas, the religious writings, include mantras (hymns of praise), brahmanas (sacrificial rituals) and upanishads (108 sacred teachings). The Smriti include the law (books of laws), puranas (myths, stories, legends) and epics (sets of holy myths including Ramayana and Mahabharata).

Gsarawt The Hindu paths to salvation include the way of works (rituals), the way of knowledge (realization of reality and self-reflection), and the way of devotion (devotion to the god that you choose to follow). If the practitioner follows the paths of these ways, salvation can be achieved.


McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, Handbook of Today's Religions. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983. Twelfth printing, June 1992.

Shelley, Fred M. and Audrey E. Clarke, eds. Human and Cultural Geography. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1994.


' Krishna' courtesy of About Rajasthan-

'Ganesh' and 'Shiva' courtesy of World Religions in Images

'Gsarawt' courtesy of Presja

Written by Sara Wenner, 2001

We the undersigned natural persons of the age of eighteen years or more, acting as incorporators of a corporation, adopt the following Articles of Incorporation pursuant to the District of Columbia Non-profit Corporation Act:

I - Name


II - Duration

The period of duration is perpetual.

III - Purpose

The purposes for which the Corporation is organized are: God is man made in the image of God. From the time through the ages truly man is loss except such as have faith and join together in mutual teaching of truth, and of patience and constancy. God has not give us the spirit of fear but of power and of love and of a sound mind to each human being. Man is God at her/his highest goodness. Since all the above religions advocate for the well being of man, each human can and should learn, teach and practice all the above religions and To document all the different kinds of the religions in the world especially the African Religions.

A. Gods

1. The river gods, eg, Tano, Subin, Ogun and etc.

2. Mmotia or dwafs

3. Abosom, Tegare, Kwaku Ofiri, Dokosu, Kyinaman and etc.

4. Nsuman

5. Others

A. Christianity.

1. Catholism

2. Protestants

C. Eastern Orhodox Church

D. Islam and other Muslin Religions

E. Budduism

F. Confuism

F. To use such holy books as the Bible, the Koran, the Tora and others to understand the universality of God.



G. To seek the universal acceptance of the fact that Africa belongs to all African descendants living on the continent or living abroad, either by accident of history-SLAVERY-the great holocaust or by choice.

1. To unite the descendants of Africa under one GOD through the Gods; Tegare, Dokosu, Kwaku Ofiri the

2. To raise the level of CONSCIOUSNESS of the AFRICAN DESCENDANTS to one of SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE AFRICAN RACE and other races. It is self evident that GOD created man in His Own Image of: BLACK, RED, YELLOW AND WHITE images, for His Own Glory,

that all men: the Black woman/man, the woman/Red man, the Yellowwoman/man and the White man/woman are created equal and are endowed with certain inalienable rights.

3. We are dedicated to improving the physical and spiritual conditions of all human beings especially the African peoples through the study and restoration of the human personalities especially the African personality, African Culture and ways of life in other to improve our understanding of the "PEOPLES' ACTIVITIES".

4. To document and teach the true PERSONALITIES OF THE human being, especially the AFRICANS in all the shades of the black color as being manifested in different countries of the world; the clothing and daily lives of the AFRICANS in the traditional dresses, hairdos, etc.

5. To establish a bureau of world languages especially the African Languages. To research, document, promote and teach AFRICAN LANGUAGES to all the diaspora Africans who have lost their tongue and knowledge of their Africa languages as a result of slavery-the great holocaust and its implications and consequences.

6. To research, compile, teach, record and disseminate the traditional drummings, songs-social, cultural rites, religious, war, peace and other songs; proverbs, stories, and others so as to preserve what we inherited from our ancestors.

7. To compare and contrast differences between the African traditional religion and other world religions and their effects on societies.

8. To make sure that each Diaspora African is given a home, a name, a tongue-language, an opportunity to belong to a country and a language in Africa so that they can possess dual citizenship to enable them to use their acquired western knowledge for the development of Africa. (EZRA 2:1).

9. To participate in the establishment of the International Institute of Languages so as to preserve and to perpetuate the various languages in the world, a manifestation of GOD, as represented in the United Nations. To preserve the various sounds in the world languages.

10. To promote the works of the Organization of the UNITED NATINS, Africa Unity (O.A.U.) and the works of the United States of America as documented by their practical understanding of human nature in human governance: the law of unity-50 atates in one government, the law of sowing and harvesting, The Executive branch, the Judiciary Branch and the Legislative Branch and the abilities of the descendants of the Founding Fathers of USA to continue the great works of human liberty that their ancestors brought to mankind.

11. To present and demonstrate to the world the true picture of African philosophy and religion as being manifested in all forms of worship, and life thereby showing succinctly the contributions African descendants have made towards the progress of human civilization in science, music, sports, and all human achievements.

12. To foster the spirit of CONTINENTAL PRIDE IN ALL AFRICANS-those at home and those abroad.

13. To receive and administer funds for educational, arts business, economic, social, historical and technological purposes for the benefit of mankind and Africans, and for the economic development of the African people.

13. To take and hold, by bequest, devise, gift, purchase, or lease for such objects and purposes or any of them, any property, real, personal or mixed, without limitation as to amount or value, except such limitations, if any as may be imposed by law.

14. To sell, convey and dispose of any such property and to invest and to re-invest the principal and income thereof, to receive, take title to, hold, and use the proceeds and income of stock, bonds, obligations or other securities of any corporation or corporations, domestic or foreign, but only for the foregoing purposes or some of them.

15. To exercise any, all and every power of a non-profit corporation, as provided under the non-profit Corporation Laws of the District of Columbia.


IV - Membership

The Corporation will have members and chapters. The authorized numbers and qualification of members of the Corporation, the different classes of membership, and their liabilities to dues assessments and the method of collection thereof shall be set forth in the Bylaws; provided however, that any Bylaws fixing or changing the liability of the members of this Corporation for dues and assessments may be adopted, amended or repealed only by the vote or written consent of a majority of the voting members of this Corporation.

The Corporation shall be made of the following classes of memberships: Corporate, personal, educational and others. The rights and privileges of each class member shall be as provided in the Bylaws. All members shall be entitled to vote.

V - Board of Directors

There shall be a Board of Directors which shall have supervision, control and direction of the affairs of the corporation, determine its policies, subject to procedures or requirements specified elsewhere by the Bylaws. The Board of Directors shall actively prosecute its objectives and shall have discretion in the disbursements of Corporations's funds. It may adopt such rules and regulations as are necessary for the conduct of its business, and may in the execution of its powers appoint such agents as it may consider necessary.

The number of directors constituting the initial Board of Directors shall be four (4) and the names and addresses, including street number of the persons who are to serve as the initial directors until the first annual meeting or until their successors be elected and qualified are:


Dr. Kofi Agyapong 2509 22nd Street, N.E. Wash. D.C. 20018.

Mr. Kwaku Addai 2509 22nd Street, N.E. Wash. D.C. 20018.

Mr. Yaw Agyapong 2509 22nd Street, N.E. Wash. D.C. 20018.

Mr. Kwame Kusi 2509 22nd Street, N.E. Wash. D.C. 20018.

TENTH: The name and address including street and number of each incorporator is:

Dr. Kofi Agyapong 2509 22nd Street, N.E. Wash. D.C. 20018

Mr. Donald J. Matthews, Jr. 10320 Broom Lane, Lanham, MD. 20706

Mr. Mohammed A Idris 5831 Quantrell Ave., #305, Alex. Va, 22312

VI - Dissolution

The Bylaws shall contain provision for the distribution of assets in the event of dissolution and final liquidation of the Corporation.

VII - Address

The address of SADA's initial registered office is 2509 22nd Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20018-2121, and the name of its initial registered agent at such address is Dr. Kofi Agyapong

VIII - Signatures of Incorporators



I, , a Notary Public, hereby certify that on the day of , 1995, Kofi Agyapong, Donald J. Matthews Jr. and Mohammed A. Idris, personally and individually appeared before me,and signed the foregoing document as incorporators, and swore to an oath that the statement therein contained are true.

Notary Public, Washington, D.C.

My Commission expires on: _________________________________________


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